How Do Electric Scooters Work? – The Science behind E-Scooters

How Do Electric Scooters Work

You’ve been driving your favorite ride for quite a few weeks, or you’re someone who’s aiming to buy an electric scooter. One frequently asked intriguing question comes to your mind, “how do electric scooters work?”

Well, you’re not the only one who thinks this way. This efficient, portable, and environment-friendly means of transport is no less than a miracle and makes one wonder how does this work? If you’ve had this question in mind and are looking for its answer, worry not.

I will explain how electric scooters work and what’s happening inside this machine while you have a fantastic ride. Let’s begin!

How does an electric scooter work?

Before talking about how an electric scooter works, let’s shed some light on its operation. The battery and motor are the two most important components that power your electric scooter.

These two work together to help your electric scooter propel forward. Batteries produce the energy by using a generator that reaches the motor. The generator plays the role of recharging the battery.

A sensor is located on the handlebar that helps regulate the speed a scooter can reach. The throttle controls the motor, and as the rider presses it, the motor starts rotating. As the rider pushes the throttle, the scooter speeds up.

Motor controllers communicate with each other. Signals are sent by throttle, battery, and electric brakes to the motor controller. The motor controller consists of a circuit board, and by the use of software and sensors, it reads the incoming commands and messages and responds accordingly.

The motor controller can read your scooter’s remaining battery level and determine the appropriate power required to propel your scooter forward. A battery is used for storing a charge that helps it achieve a maximum speed.

The motor is mounted on a frame and generates electricity that is sent back to the battery and then to the motor controller. The electric motor can either turn the front wheels or both wheels.

Major Components of an E-scooter

1. Motor

What powers the motor to generate all that energy is the battery. As mentioned before, these two go hand in hand. Unlike engines in conventional car engines that use a driveshaft, these electric batteries use an armature.

An armature has magnets inside it, and the outside of the motor is surrounded by electromagnets and copper coils called “stators.” Electromagnets form a 360-degree circle around the armature.

These electromagnets flip their polarity so that the magnets present in the armature follow it hence generating energy. Opposite poles on magnets cause the armature to follow the stator.

2. Battery

The battery comprises specific components that work to provide energy to the motor. These components include a cathode, an anode, a separator between two, and a medium of current exchange between the cathode and anode.

Cathode and anode toss lithium ions back and forth from anode to cathode while discharging and vice versa during charging. This continuous flow of ions between cathode and anode generates electrons, producing electricity.

We can shrink the size of batteries and still maintain the same energy production by shrinking the space between cathode and anode. This is how we can fit a battery into the stem of a scooter powerful enough to propel the scooter at speeds above 40km/h.

Other parts of an electric scooter

We should not forget about other components that ensure the proper functioning of your scooter. These include:

1. Wheels

You’ll find two types of wheels on most scooters, solid wheels or air-filled pneumatic tires. The bigger these wheels are, the more comfortable your ride is. Three-wheeled scooters have been seen on the rise due to the added stability and comfort additional tires provide.

2. Suspension System

Suspension systems give you a comfortable ride by not letting you feel bumps or potholes. This feature enables you to go off-road as well.

3. Steering System

The steering system is an essential component as it allows you to turn your scooter left or right. Physically moving your handlebar is a thing of the past now. New technology allows you to control your scooter by your movement.

If you lean right, the scooter moves right and vice versa. This makes the scooter user-friendly and efficient.

How does an electric scooter stop?

Now that you’ve had an idea about how your scooter accelerates let’s talk about how it slows down. Braking is as crucial as the speeding up of a scooter. Brakes are responsible for stopping and slowing down your electric scooter.

The brake system varies for every scooter model, but we’ll be using the example of a cycle board roller. Its braking system uses a combination of hydraulic and electronic braking.

Hydraulic disc brakes use hydraulic (fluid-filled) lines that help control brake calipers’ activation. Once you press that brake lever, pressure increases in the hydraulic lines connected to brake calipers, this surge in pressure pinch the rotor as the piston moves, causing your scooter to stop.

Electronic brakes are activated by a switch which causes resistance to the movement of the motor, thus cutting the power supply for the scooter and finally stopping it. These can be activated by either brake levers or push buttons.

How to make your electric scooter work properly

Although low maintenance, these scooters still require maintenance to ensure optimum performance. Here are some steps that you can take to ensure that your scooter provides its maximum capability

1. Frequent Cleaning

Keep your scooter clean. Keep it away from all that dust. Cleaning doesn’t mean that you should wash it with a hose as electricity and water don’t go hand in hand. Instead, use a damp cloth to clean dusty parts.

2. Lubrication

Constant usage makes the performance deteriorate due to decreased lubrication. Friction impacts the normal functioning of the motor and other parts; therefore, you should use a lubricant to ensure smooth functioning.

3. Check tires

Inflated tires enable the scooter to perform better as it can bear the weight of the rider and can also provide the maximum speed required. Deflated tires, however, slow down the scooter hence decreasing its performance.

4. Battery

As mentioned beforehand, the battery is an essential component of your scooter since it is the driving force behind it. Make sure to avoid these practices to ensure a maximized battery life:

  1. Overheating the battery
  2. Charging too fast
  3. Overcharging
  4. Discharging too far

Doing any of the above will decrease battery life, causing you to buy a new one which will be heavy on your pocket. Moreover, try not to let the batteries heat up. If they’re overheating, leave them to cool down and then charge them.

Final Words – Wrapping it up

I hope this article helps clear any confusion regarding how electric scooter functions and what components play what part in ensuring a smooth ride.

Just make sure to take care of your scooter and keep it well maintained to ensure long-lasting life for your investment. Performance can decrease if the scooter is not taken care of well.

Follow the above methods, and you’re good to go. These methods won’t take much of your time since they need no expert guidance, and almost anyone can do them. Machines, like humans, demand maintenance.

Make sure to keep your ride well maintained so that it performs to its best possible level.

Daniel Scott

Daniel Scott

Daniel Scott is an e-scooter reviewer and author at Erides Hub. His unbridled enthusiasm for the latest electric scooters has led him to become a reviewer and author at Erides Hub. He provides honest, unbiased reviews on the newest models of electric scooters, taking into account all angles from design, and battery life to speed. may earn commissions for products recommended through affiliate links. Read our affiliate disclosure here.